पञ्चतन्त्रं panchatantra

ग्रंथालय  > प्राचीन हिंदू साहित्य Posted at 2016-08-10 06:04:51
PANCHATANTRAM TRANSLATION MITRA BHEDA- SECTION ONE SHREEVISHNUSHARMAPRANEETAM PANCHATANTRAM श्रीविष्णुशर्मप्रणीतं पञ्चतन्त्रं SANSKRIT TEXT WITH ENGLISH COMMENTARY by TEJASVINI FIVE COURSES OF ACTION PRESCRIBED IN THE ADMINISTRATIVE SCIENCE {ANCIENT WISDOM} INTRODUCTION Salutations to the great PARAMAHAMSA who only saw divinity everywhere in this ‘brain concocted picture’ of the world. Who is a PARAMAHAMSA? Supposedly, there once existed some swans of a unique kind in the Maanasa Sarovara (lake) in the Himalayan region, which had the capacity to absorb only the milk from a mixture of water and milk kept in a pot. The saints belonging to the ParamaHamsa category are supposed to be in such a high level of mind that they can never see anything but the Self or the Supreme in whatever they perceive. These types of saints are very rare to find. In the modern world we have only the worst kinds of minds, which only take the water and discard the milk in whatever is perceived. PANCHATANTRA is one such mixture of diluted milk prepared by the great scholar Vishnu Sharma for educating the children (and even adults) easily. The entire knowledge of all practical sciences was taught to his students through many amusing stories. Stories were there to create interest in the topic and helped them in remembering the advice that came along with the stories. With a two-lined story, there were some two pages of instructions taught which the students listened to as an unavoidable blabber, with the hope of hearing another amusing anecdote after the bitter lecture was over. Though not intent on learning, they unconsciously became experts in all the sciences. Stories always came to their help in memorizing the topics. The students wanted only the honey of the stories but had to swallow the bitter medicine that came along with it. The students consumed both the milk and water and got the benefit of the milk too. In the modern world somehow ‘Panchatantra’ the treatise on wisdom has become famous as a story book for children rather than as a scripture of knowledge. Panchatantra is a practical guide to life. It discusses all the situations, best or worst that occur in our life and tells us how to tackle them wisely. It is a torch lit by the great scholar to guide us in the dark gullies of the world. But unfortunately we have managed to throw away the milk and are giving the children only the water from this great book. Panchatantra is not a collection of animal stories written to amuse the children but a book of guidance useful for even an aged person. This work is an attempt to present the creamy milk hidden in this great scripture. ‘SALUTATIONS TO ALL THE GREAT MINDS OF THE ANCIENT INDIA.’ पञ्चतन्त्रं प्रथमं तन्त्रं {FIRST SECTION} मित्रभेदः {CREATING RIFT AMONG FRIENDS} प्रार्थना ब्रह्मा रुद्रः कुमारो हरिवरुणयमा वह्निरिन्द्रः कुबेर- श्चन्द्रादित्यौ सरस्वत्युदधियुगनगा वायुरुर्वी भुजङ्गाः सिद्धा नद्योश्विनौ श्रीर्दितिरदितिसुता मातरश्चण्डिकाद्याः वेदास्तीर्थानि यज्ञा गणवसुमुनयः पान्तु नित्यं ग्रहाश्च [1] मनवे वाचस्पतये शुक्राय पराशराय ससुताय चाणक्याय च विदुषे नमोsस्तु नयशास्त्रकर्त्रभ्यः [2] सकलार्थशास्त्रसारं जगति समालोक्य विष्णुशर्मेदं तन्त्रैः पञ्चभिरेतच्चकार सुमनोहरं शास्त्रं [3] {PRAYER} Let Brahma, Rudra, Kumaara, Hari, Varuna, Yama, Agni, Indra, Kubera, Chandra, Aaditya, Sarasvati, Ocean, Yugas, mountains, Vaayu, Earth, Serpents, Siddhas, Rivers, Ashvini Gods, Shree, Diti, Aditi’s sons (gods), Mother Goddesses (like Chandikaa), Vedas, pilgrimage centers, Sacrifices, Shiva-Ganas, Vasus, Sages, and planets protect us always. [1] Salutations to Manu, Vaachaspati, Shukra, Paraashara along with his son (Vyaasa), Chaanakya the genius, the creators of treatises on Morality. [2] Vishnu Sharma has studied the entire collection of Texts on Morality (politics) in this world and has created this Treatise containing five sections which is very pleasant to the mind. [3] कथामुखं {INTRODUCTION TO THE STORY} It is so heard- There is a city named Mahilaaropya in the Southern regions, ruled by a king named Amarashakti; he was like a divine Kalpa tree in attending to the needs of all the people (he was extremely compassionate and charitable); his feet was worshipped by the clusters of blossoms formed by the colorful rays shooting out from the gems studded on the crowns of the great kings (all great kings revered him and respected him); he had mastered all the sciences. He had three sons named Bahushakti, Ugrashakti and Anantashakti, who were of very wicked nature. (They were averse to learning and were impolite to one and all). Observing his children who were not interested in any learning, the king called his ministers for a meeting and addressed them like this: “Hello Everybody! You all already know that these sons of mine are averse to learning any scripture and are completely without any intelligence. Observing them like this, I do not feel happy even when ruling this great kingdom. Or, it is rightly said- अजातमृतमूर्खेभ्यो मृताजातौ सुतौ वरं यतस्तौ स्वल्पदुःखाय यावज्जीवं जडो दहेत् [4] Of the three types of sons- unborn, dead and foolish, the dead and unborn sons are better. They both give only little pain; but the idiot son burns you the whole of your life. वरं गर्भस्रावो वरमृतुषु नैवाभिगमनम् वरं जाताः प्रेतो वरमपि च कन्यैव जनिता वरं वन्ध्या भार्या वरमपि च गर्भेषु वसति – र्नचाविद्वान् रूपद्रविणगुणयुक्तोsपि तनयाः [5] It is better that an abortion occurs; it is better that there is no coupling at all in the prescribed period; it is better the child is still-born; it is better that even a daughter is born; it is better that the wife is barren; it is better that the child never leaves its womb; but never should a son be there who is not learned, though he may have other possessions like beauty and wealth. किं तया क्रियते धेन्वा या न सूते न दुग्धदा कोsर्थः पुत्रेण जातेन यो न विद्वान्न भक्तिमान् [6] What can be done with a cow that does not deliver a calf, nor yields milk? What is a son worth who is not learned nor devoted to elders? वरमिह वा सुतमरणं मा मूर्खत्वं कुलप्रसूतस्य स येन विबुधजनमध्ये जारज इव लज्जते मनुजः [7] Better is the death of a son; but never a state where the son who holds the name of the family acts foolish; because of which a man has to feel embarrassed in the assembly of the wise, like the son of an adulteress! गुणिगणगणनारंभे न पतति कटिनी ससंभ्रमा यस्य तेनाम्बा यदि सुतिनी वद वन्ध्या कीदृशी भवति [8] If the son’s name is not written excitedly at the beginning of the list containing the names of the people who are of noble characters, then in what way is she lesser in state than that of a barren woman? Then do something by which these sons of mine will become intelligent. Here in my court itself, there are fifty scholars who enjoy the salary given by me. Therefore see how my wishes can be fulfilled.” Then one of them said- “Lord! To study the texts on grammar it takes twelve years; then the texts on Dharma of Manu (Manusmrti), treatises on economics authored by Chaanakya and treatises on Kaama(desire) authored by Vaatsyaayana have to be mastered. In this manner one understands the texts written on Dharma, Artha, and Kaama, and finally gets enlightened.” Then a minister named Sumati stood up in their midst and said- “The life of a human being is very short. The study of Grammar texts itself will take a long time to get over with. Therefore think of some compact text which can be used in making these princes learned. Because it is said- अनन्तपारं किल शब्दशास्त्रं स्वल्पं तथायुर्बहवश्च विघ्नाः सारं ततो ग्राह्यमपास्य फल्गु हंसैर्यथा क्षीरमिवाम्बुमध्यात् [9] The grammar text is very huge and has much depth. The life of a human being is short and obstacles are many. Only the essence has to be grasped leaving out the wasteful sections, like the swans absorbing only milk from the water (and milk mixture). There is a Brahmin named Vishnu Sharma. He is a master of all sciences. He is well known in the circle of students. Offer these princes to his care. He will definitely make them learned very fast.” The king heard his words and called Vishnu Sharma and said- “O Lord! Please oblige me and make these boys unparalleled masters of the political science quickly. Then I will honor you with the ruling power of hundred villages.” Then Vishnu Sharma said to the king- “Lord! Listen to my solemn promise! I will never sell knowledge even for the ruler-ship of hundred villages! However, if I do not make your sons experts in ‘Administration science’ within next six months, then I will renounce my very name! What more, listen to this lion’s roar of mine! I am not saying this being greedy for wealth. I have passed eighty years and I have renounced the desire for all sense pleasures. What use is wealth to me? But, to fulfill your request I will make an amusing diversion in the learning process. Write down today’s date. If I do not make your sons unparalleled masters of ‘Administration science’, then no god shall guide me towards heavens!” The king and his ministers heard the impossible vow promised by the Brahmin and felt happy and surprised at the same time. The king left his sons in his care and felt very much relieved. Vishnu Sharma kept them with him and to educate them wrote the five sections of Administration science namely – मित्र-भेद, मित्र-प्राप्ति, काकोलुकीय, लब्ध-प्रणाश, अपरीक्षितकारक (MITRA-BHEDA, MITRA-PRAAPTI, KAAKOLUKEEYA, LABDHA-PRANAASHA, and APAREEKSHITAKAARAKA) and taught those princes. They too studied them and became experts within six months as he had declared. From that time onwards, this science of Administration has become very popular and is used in educating children. What more- अधीते य इदं नित्यं नीतिशास्त्रं शृणोति च न पराभवमाप्नोति शक्रादपि कदाचन [10] He who studies or listens to this science of Administration daily will never ever get defeated even by Indra. इति कथामुखं {INTRODUCTION TO THE STORY ENDS} ***** प्रथमं तन्त्रं {FIRST SECTION} मित्र-भेदः {CREATING RIFT AMONG FRIENDS} प्रस्तावना कथा {INTORODUCTORY STORY} Now begins the first section named MITRA-BHEDA, in which this is the first verse- वर्धमानो महान्स्नेहः सिम्हगोवृषयोर्वने पिशुनेनातिलुब्धेन जम्बुकेन विनाशितः [1] The increasing true friendship between the lion and the bull in the forest was destroyed by a deceitful greedy fox. PROLOGUE The whole book of Panchatantra mostly contains animal characters acting the story out; but the book is not intended to entertain children with animal stories. Man is a mammal who is at the peak point of evolution and has conquered all his base qualities of his evolutionary ancestors; so we hope optimistically. But still he is just an animal who contains within himself all the qualities of all the other animals. If in every event we could place a magical X-ray machine in front of him and observe, we may be surprised by the animal forms that appear inside the human disguise. Vishnu Sharma has X-rayed the civilized human being in his book and exposes his animal qualities unabashedly. The First Tantra is named MITRA-BHEDA meaning ‘Rift between friends’. The whole story is about how to break a friendship, yet it is a lesson for all the friends how not to let their friendship break. The main characters in this story are a lion, a bull, and two foxes- one a passive witness and another, a deceitful schemer. Lion represents the leadership quality in a person; the bull represents the ordinary good man of the world who does not have much understanding about the fraudulent events that go on in political circles. The foxes represent the scheming nature in a man; which sometimes can even ruin a guileless friendship between a rich ruler and a poor public. LION: The Lion is named Pingalaka, a person of yellowish or reddish brown hue; or a person rich and prosperous overflowing with wealth and gold. We will see the lion Pingalaka picturized as oscillating between the good and the bad by trusting any person who flatters him and becoming the puppet in their hands. If you are a leader, beware of the schemers around you. BULL: The Bull is named Sanjeevaka, who just wants to live happily adjusting with all. The bull Sanjeevaka is picturized as a guileless person who trusts any one with full heart; he is a person who cannot see evil in this world; well, when he sees evil he is left helpless to face the circumstances and perish. If you are a good man, don’t be too good like the bull Sanjeevaka and try to understand that the world contains wicked minds also and be clever enough not to fall into their traps. FOXES: The first one is named Karataka- which actually is the name of the propounder of art and theft. If you are a schemer but yet unselfish do not support deceit like Karataka to walk out at the end after the evil is done. Save the situation before it goes out of hand. The second one is named Damanaka, the ‘winner’, who can manipulate anybody to achieve his ends. If you are a schemer with only selfish gains as your life’s mission like Damanaka, what else to comment but- ‘Keep out’! To all those who adore friendship- ‘Beware of the ‘Damanakas’ hiding in the human minds’. To all the selfless souls- ‘Beware of the selfishness hiding in all the human minds.’ OM TAT SAT {THE MAIN STORY} So it is heard- There is a city named MAHILAAROPYA in the southern region. There lived a merchant’s son named Vardhamaanaka in that city; he had earned huge amount of wealth through righteous means. Once as he was sitting on his bed at night, he thought anxiously like this-“even if abundant wealth is there one should think of ways to increase it and do the needful also. As it is said- {IMPORTANCE OF WEALTH} नहि तद्विद्यते किन्चिद्यदर्थेन न सिध्यति यत्नेन मतिमान्स्तस्मादर्थमेकं प्रसाधयेत् [2] There is nothing that is not possible to attain through wealth. So an intelligent man should only strive to earn wealth. यस्यार्थास्तस्य मित्राणि यस्यार्थास्तस्य बान्धवाः यस्यार्थाः स पुमान्ल्लोके यस्यार्थाः स च पण्डितः [3] He who has wealth has friends; he who has wealth has relatives; he who has wealth is a well-respected man in the world; he who has wealth is a learned man. न सा विद्या न तद्दा नं न तच्छिल्पं न सा कला न तत्स्थैर्यं हि धनिनां याचकैर्नगीयते [4] There is no learning, no charity, no statue, no art, and no firmness which has not been made the attribute of the rich by the beggars hovering around them. इह लोके हि धनिनां परोsपि सुजनायते स्वजनोsपि दरिद्राणां सर्वदा दुर्जनायते [5] In this world, even the enemy of a wealthy man gets honored. Even the acquaintance of a poor man is always treated as a wicked person. अर्थेभ्योSतिप्रवृद्धेभ्यः संवृत्तेभ्यस्ततस्ततः प्रवर्तन्ते क्रियाः सर्वाः पर्वतेभ्य इवापगाः [6] When the wealth is accumulated from various sources and when it keeps increasing abundantly, then all works get completed effortlessly, like the rivers flowing down from the mountain. पूज्यते यदपूज्योsपि यदगम्योsपि गम्यते वन्द्यते यदवन्द्योsपि स प्रभावो धनस्य च [7] Even a man not worthy of worship gets worshipped; even a man who should not be sought for gets sought after; even a man who should not be saluted gets saluted. Such is the influence of wealth. अशनादिन्द्रियाणि इव स्युः कार्याण्यखिलान्यापि एतस्मात्कारणाद्वित्तं सर्वसाधनमुच्यते [8] Through food the senses are capable of performing all their actions. This is the very reason wealth is extolled as the means for everything. अर्थार्थी जीवलोकोयं स्मशानमपि सेवते त्यक्त्वा जनयितारं स्वं निःस्वं गच्छति दूरतः [9] A man of this world in need of wealth will even stay at ‘cremation grounds’; he will even discard his wealth-less parents and move away. गतवयसामपि पुरुषं येषामर्था भवन्ति ते तरुणाः अर्थेन तु ये हीना वृद्धास्ते यौवनेsपि स्युः [10] The aged men become youths if they have wealth. The youth are indeed old if they do not own wealth. This wealth can be attained by men through six means – begging, by serving the king, by agricultural activities, by getting learned, by lending money for interest and merchandise. Among all these, the wealth got through merchandise is a never a bad bargain. It is said- हता भिक्षा भेकैर्वितरति नृपो नोचितमहो कृषिः क्लिष्टा विद्या गुरुविनयवृत्त्याSति विषमा कुसीदाद्दारिद्र्यं परकरगतग्रन्थिशमनात् न मन्ये वाणिज्यात्किमपि परमं वर्तनमिह [11] The begging profession has lost its esteem because of vile characters. The king never gives the correct remuneration. Agriculture is a hard work. Education is difficult because one has to be always polite to the teachers. The lending business ends you in poverty, because even the original money given as a loan to another never comes back. I do not find any other business better than merchandise. उपायानाञ्च सर्वेषामुपायः पण्यसन्ग्रहः धनार्थं शस्यते ह्येकस्तदन्यः संशयात्मकः [12] Among all the methods mentioned as means of earning wealth, the hoarding of things for sale is the best one; rest is not dependable. Even in merchandise, there are seven types mentioned as the means for earning wealth. They are like this- Selling perfumes, pawning, business connected to cows; cheating regular customers, selling worthless stuff for extraordinary prices, incorrect weighing in the balance, selling foreign goods. It is said- पण्यानां गान्धिकं पण्यं किमन्यैः काञ्चनादिभिः यत्रैकेन च यत्क्रीतं तच्छतेन प्रदीयते [13] Among all saleable products, perfume is the best, even gold and other things are not comparable to it. One becomes hundred, when it (perfume) is bought and sold. निक्षेपे पतिते हर्म्ये श्रेष्टी स्तौति स्वदेवतां निक्षेपी म्रियते तुभ्यं प्रदास्याम्युपयाचितं [14] When the pawned object has made entry into his house, the rich man prays like this to his deity. ‘If the man who has pawned dies, I will offer anything to you in return’. गौष्टिककर्मनियुक्तःश्रेष्टी चिन्तयति चेतसा ह्र्ष्टः वसुधा वसुसंपूर्णा मयाद्य लब्धा किमन्येन [15] The rich man in the cow-business thinks happily, ‘This whole earth filled with all the wealth has been obtained by me; (I can allow my cows to graze everywhere.) What else do I need?’ परिचितमागच्छन्तं ग्राहकमुत्कण्ठया विलोक्यासौ हृष्यति तद्धनलुब्धो यद्वत्पुत्रेण जातेन [16] Observing eagerly the regular customer who has arrived, the greedy fellow after money becomes happy as if a son is born to him. (He gets ready to cheat.) And also- पूर्णाsपूर्णैर्मानै: परिचितजनवन्चनं तथा नित्यं मिथ्याक्रयस्य कथनं प्रकृतिरियं स्यात्किराटानां [17] Cheating the acquainted customers with incorrect weights and always quoting incorrect prices for objects is the nature of merchants. And also- द्विगुणं त्रिगुणं वित्तं भाण्डक्रयविचक्षणाः प्राप्नुवन्त्युद्यमाल्लोका दूरदेशान्तरं गताः [18] Those adept in the sales techniques get twice or thrice the original amount in their business when they visit foreign countries.” {SANJEEVAKA’S STORY} Having decided in this manner, he collected the goods to be sold in Mathura and on an auspicious day, taking the blessings of his elders, seated on a good cart he began his journey. Two auspicious bulls named Sanjeevaka and Nandaka were born in his house and were bred there itself. They had been yoked to the cart to pull it along the road. Of the two, the bull named Sanjeevaka climbed down towards the bank of the River Yamuna and slipped in the wet sand; he broke the yoke and sat down. Vardhamaana felt very much distressed seeing the condition of his pet bull. He even broke his journey for three days waiting for the bull to recover. Observing him sad like this, the co-travelers said to him, “O rich man! How can you jeopardize the lives of all of us by making us all wait here in this dangerous forest filled with lions and tigers? It is said- न स्वल्पस्य कृते भूरि नाशयेन्मतिमान्नरः एतदेवात्र पाण्डित्यं यत्स्वल्पाद्भूरिरक्षणं [19] An intelligent man does not destroy much for the sake of less. If he can lose only a little and save much, then that is the sign of his intelligence.” Vardhamaana agreed to their words. He placed a few men to care for the bull and continued his journey with his fellow travelers. Those men in turn felt the forest to be too dangerous to remain alone there. They left the bull there itself and went off quickly to join the merchant caravan. They lied to their master-“Master, that poor Sanjeevaka is dead. We cremated him in the fire as we felt that, that would have been your wish.” Hearing their words Vardhamaana felt grateful towards them for their kind act. Emotionally moved by the bull’s death, he performed all the necessary rites connected to the death of the bull. Sanjeevaka had more life-span to his credit. He revived by the cool moist winds blowing from the river; he got up somehow with all effort he could muster and reached the bank of the river. Eating the tender grass shoots shining like emeralds, within a few days he shone like the bull of Shiva. He had a huge hump on his back and became very strong. Everyday he broke the anthills around there with his horns and roared aloud. It is well-said, अरक्षितं तिष्टति दैवरक्षितं सुरक्षितं दैवहतम् विनश्यति जीवत्यनाथोsपि वने विसर्जितः कृतप्रयत्नोsपि गृहे विनश्यति [20] That which is un-protected remains protected by the unseen fate. That which is protected perishes when the fate is against it. Even an orphan lives left in a forest. Even with no effort spared, one in the house dies. {STORY OF PINGALAKA} Once a lion named PINGALAKA came to the banks of river Yamuna to drink water and ease its thirst, surrounded by all its followers. He heard the loud deep roaring sound of Sanjeevaka from far. Hearing that sound, he felt very much anxious. Frightened he hid himself under a fig tree making a protective circle of four sections. {In the innermost circle the king will stay; next circle will be occupied by trustworthy ministers and subordinates; the third circle will be occupied by soldiers. The outermost ring will contain the spies and guards.} The four-fold sphere will be like this- the lion, the followers of lion, the servants and the ordinary class of spies and guards. {COWARDICE OF A KING MAKES HIM A PUPPET IN THE HANDS OF A CHEAT} There were two foxes named KARATAKA and DAMANAKA, the sons of the minister. At present they were without jobs and followed the king always trying to win his favor. They both discussed with each other. Damanaka said- “My good friend Karataka! Now our Master has gone down the river bank to drink water. But he is still there only. For what reason has he not ventured to quench his thirst but is concealing himself inside a ring-arrangement under a fig tree and acting distressed?” Karataka said-“O good man! What does it matter to us? It is said- अव्यापारेषु व्यापारं यो नरः कर्तुमिच्छति स एव निधनं यातिकीलोत्पाटीव वानरः [21] That man who wants to engage in doing something which is not at all connected to him will indeed die like the monkey which removed the wedge.” Damanaka said-“How is that so?” Karataka said- [1] कीलोत्पाटीवानरकथा {THE STORY OF THE MONKEY WHICH REMOVED THE WEDGE} “Near some city, a merchant’s son wanted to build a temple in the center of some thickly grown grove of trees. One log of wood belonging to the acacia tree had been half-cut by a carpenter and left there with a wedge stuck in between the crack. Meanwhile some monkeys started playing on top of the trees, roof of the building and logs of woods with abandon. One of the monkeys of restless nature who was fated to die sat on the half-cut log of wood and started pulling the wedge away with both of his hands. His scrotum was hanging in between the two slices of wood, and when the wedge was removed what happened has already been told. That is why I say – अव्यापारेषु (in things not of your concern). We have enough food left over to eat after the king finishes his meals, so why bother about other things?” Damanaka said, “You are just a person hankering after food. That is not right. It is said- {MEANING OF LIFE} सुहृदामुपकारकारणाद्द्विषदामप्यपकारकारणात् नृपसंश्रय इष्यते बुधैर्जटरं को न बिभर्ति केवलं [22] The wise men seek shelter with the king because it will be conducive to the welfare of their own kith and clan, and harmful to the enemies of oneself. Who does not simply fill his belly? Also- यस्मिन्जीवति जीवन्ति बहवः सोsत्र जीवतु वयांसि किं न कुर्वन्ति चञ्च्वा स्वोदरपूरणात् [23] Let him alone live, by whose living many live. Don’t the birds also fill their bellies through their beaks? Also- यज्जीव्यते क्षणमपि प्रथितं मनुष्यैर्विज्ञानशौर्यविभवार्यगुणैः समेतं तन्नाम जीवितमिह प्रवदन्ति तज्ञा: काकोsपि जीवति चिराय बलिञ्च भुङ्क्ते [24] When life is lived by men even for a second getting praised for their achievement in arts, valor, wealth and nobility of character, that alone is said to be a life worth lived for- so say the wise ones. Even a crow lives for long eating the crumbs thrown as offering to it. यो नात्मना न च परेण च बन्धुवर्गे दीने दयां न कुरुते न च भृत्यवर्गे किं तस्य जीवितफलं हि मनुष्यलोके काकोsपि जीवति चिराय बलिञ्च भुङ्क्ते [25] He who does not directly or indirectly act kindly towards his relatives or the needy or the servants, what is the use of his life on this earth? Even a crow lives for long eating the crumbs thrown as offering to it. सुपूरा स्यात्कुनदिका सुपूरो मूषिकाञ्जलिः सुसंतुष्टः कापुरुषाः स्वल्पकेनापि तुष्टति [26] A tiny stream becomes full with just a little water; the hands of the mouse gets full with just tiny bits of food; a wretched man is satisfied and feels happy with just a little gain. And also- किं तेन जातु जातेन मातुर्यौवनहारिणा आरोहति न यः स्वस्य वंशस्याग्रे ध्वजो यथा [27] What is the use of a person who is just born to steal away the youth of his mother, who does not ascend high on top of his family like a flag? परिवर्तिनि संसारे मृतः को वा न जायते जातस्तु गण्यते सोsत्र यः स्फुरेच्च श्रियाधिकः [28] In this rotating wheel of the world-existence, who does not get born after death! He alone is said to be born who shines with excessive prosperity and fame. And also- जातस्य नदीतीरे तस्यापि तृणस्य जन्मसाफल्यं यत्सलिलमज्जनाकुलजनहस्तालम्बनम् भवति [29] Even the grass growing on the river bank attains the fulfillment of its birth, as the people who drown in the waters hold on to it for support and get saved. And also- स्तिमितोन्नतसन्चारा जनसन्तापहारिणः जायन्ते विरला लोके जलदा इव सज्जनाः [30] Rain bearing clouds float steady and stable in the higher regions of the sky removing the difficulties of people; but they are very rare. Likewise those good men who are stable in character and live in a higher mental state always help people in distress; they too are rare to find. निरतिशयं गरिमाणं तेन जनन्याः स्मरन्ति विद्वांसः यत्कमपि वहति गर्भं महतामपि यो गुरुर्भवति [31] Learned men remember a mother as an extraordinary person deserving respect because there is always a chance that her womb may contain some man who may become the teacher of even great ones. अप्रकटीकृतशक्तिः शक्तोsपि जनस्तिरस्क्रियां लभते निवसन्नन्तर्दारुणि लङ्घ्यो वह्निर्न तु ज्वलितः [32] A person who is powerful will be despised if his power does not get expressed. The wooden log gets stepped on easily by one and all, but not when the fire inside it is blazing outside.” Karataka said- “We both do not hold official posts anymore, so why should we bother about all this? {THE STATE OF A MAN WITHOUT JOB} It is said- अपृष्टोsत्राप्रधानो यो ब्रूते राज्ञः पुरः कुधीः न केवलमसंमानं लभते च विडम्बनं [33] The fool who is no more employed and is ignored says something in front of the king, he will not only be disrespected but will be derided also. And also- वचस्तत्र प्रयोक्तव्यं यत्रोक्तं लभते फलं स्थायी भवति चात्यन्तं रागाः शुक्लपटे यथा [34] One should utter a speech where there is some fruitful response. Color on a white cloth alone looks extremely prominent.” Damanaka said -“No, do not say like that. {WHY MEN TRY TO PLEASE KINGS AND RICH MEN} It is said- अप्रधानः प्रधानः स्यात् सेवते यदि पार्थिवं प्रधानोsप्यप्रधानः स्याद्यदि सेवाविवर्जितः [35] If a man serves the king well, then even one who has lost his position, will regain his post. If one does not serve the king properly even the one holding the post may lose it. It is said- आसन्नमेव नृपतिर्भजते मनुष्यं विद्याविहीनमकुलीनमसंस्कृतं च प्रायेण भूमिपतयः प्रमदा लताश्च यत्पार्श्वतो भवति तत्परिवेष्टयन्ति [36] The king only favors the man in his proximity, whether he be illiterate, or of an unworthy family or uncultured. Usually, kings, damsels and creepers embrace anything that is next to them. And also- कोपप्रसादवस्तुनि ये विचिन्वन्ति सेवकाः आरोहन्ति शनै: पश्चाद्धुन्वन्तमपि पार्थिवं [37] The servants who know what objects please or irritate the king, will slowly get the king to favor them though he might be insulting them at present. विद्यावतां महेच्छानां शिल्पविक्रमशालिनां सेवावृत्तिविदां चैव नाश्रयः पार्थिवं विना [38] For learned persons, for men with great ambitions, for those talented in the arts or valor, for those who are adept in services, there is no other shelter than the king. ये जात्यादिमहोत्साहान् नरेन्द्रान्नोपयान्ति च तेषां आमरणं भिक्षा प्रायश्चित्तं विनिर्मितं [39] Those who keep away from the king being proud of their family and caste are destined to beg all through their lives. ये च प्राहुर्दुरात्मानो दुराराध्या महीभुजः प्रमादालस्यजाड्यानि ख्यापितानि निजानि तैः [40] Those idiots who say that kings are difficult to please are only making an exhibition of their own foolishness and laziness. सर्पान्व्याघ्रान्गजान्सिम्हान् दृष्ट्वोपायैर्वशीकृतान् राजेति कियती मात्रा धीमतामप्रमादिनां [41] After observing serpents, tigers, elephants and lions getting controlled, what is a king for the ‘intelligent one’ acting with care? राजानमेव संश्रित्य विद्वान् याति परां गतिम् विना मलयमन्यत्र चन्दनं न प्ररोहति [42] The intelligent man takes shelter in the king alone and reaches great heights. The sandalwood tree does not grow anywhere else but in the Malaya mountain. धवलान्यातपत्राणि वाजिनश्च मनोरमाः सदा मत्ताश्च मातङ्गाः प्रसन्ने सति भूपतौ [43] If the king is pleased, the white royal umbrellas,the excellent horses, the ‘musth’ elephants all become yours.” Karataka said- “Then, what do you want to do now?” Damanaka said- “At present, our king Pingalaka and his retinue are in the grip of fear. So first we will approach them and find out the cause of their fear and choose one among the many strategies like- ‘Alliance, War, Travel (escape /Attack), Remain secure at one’s place, Take help from others, Double-dealing’ – and act accordingly. Karataka said- “How do you know that the king is frightened?” Damanaka said- “What is there to know? It is said- {POWER OF OBSERVATION} उदीरितोsर्थ: पशुनापि गृह्यते हयाश्च नागाश्च वहन्ति चोदिताः अनुक्तमप्यूहति पण्डितो जनः परेङ्गितज्ञानफला हि बुद्धयः [44] Even animals can sort of make out the meanings of the words uttered. The horses and elephants do as directed. Learned men can understand even words not spoken loudly. The brains are made to understand the signs made by others. And also- आकारैरिङ्गितैर्गत्या चेष्टया भाषणेन च नेत्रवक्त्रविकारैश्च लक्ष्यतेsन्तर्गतं मनः [45] It is easy to read the minds of others through appearance, signs, gait, action, speech, and the changes observed in the eyes and face. Therefore, I will approach the frightened king and remove his fear using my intellectual prowess and bring him under my control and get back my minister’s post.” Karataka said-“You do not know anything about serving a superior. How can you bring him under your control?” Damanaka said- “What do you mean by saying that I do not know the science of serving the superiors? When I was a child playing on the lap of my father, I chanced to hear the words of learned men who visited our house. They used to discuss the science of administration with each other. I have heard a lot about the science of serving the superiors and I still have that knowledge with me. Listen to this statement- {THE SCIENCE OF SERVICE} {Service here does not exactly refer to the service done by maids and men who sweep and mop the floors. We all serve some one or other- parents, teachers, saints, politicians, authorities etc.} सुवर्णपुष्पितां पृथ्वीं विचिन्वन्ति त्रयो जनाः शूरश्च कृतविद्यश्च यश्च जानाति सेवितुं [46] These three categories of people alone can ever own the earth filled with golden flowers; the valorous one, the learned one and the one who knows the art of serving. सा सेवा या प्रभुहिता ग्राह्यवाक्या विशेषतः आश्रयेत्पार्थिवं विद्वान्स्तद्द्वारेण एव नान्यथा [47] That alone is considered as service which is conducive to the welfare of the Master; especially one should be extremely obedient to him. The intelligent man should come under the shelter of the king only through this door, and none else. यो न वेत्ति गुणान् यस्य न तं सेवेत पण्डितः न हि तस्मात्फलं किञ्चित् सुकृष्टादूषरादिव [48] An intelligent man should not serve a person who does not recognize his good qualities. It will not be fruitful like the barren land getting well-cultivated. द्रव्यप्रकृतिहीनोsपि सेव्यः सेव्यगुणान्वितः भवत्याजीवनं तस्मात्फलं कालान्तरादपि [49] A person who is fit to be served should be served even if he lacks wealth. The service will surely bear fruit and last the whole of life, even if there be some delay in its appearance. अपि स्थाणुवदासीनः शुष्यन्परिगतः क्षुधा न त्वेवानात्मसंपन्नाद्वृत्तिमीहेत पण्डितः [50] It is better for the intelligent man to sit at one place like a pillar; be without food; and wither away to his death. But never should he desire to serve a non-intelligent person. सेवकः स्वामिनं द्वेष्टि कृपणं परुषाक्षरं आत्मानं किं स न द्वेष्टि सेव्यासेव्यं न वेत्ति यः [51] If the servant hates his master because he is rude and miserly in character, why not he blame himself for not knowing whom one should serve and whom one should not serve? यमाश्रित्य न विश्रामं क्षुधार्था यान्ति सेवकाः सोsर्कववन्नृपतिस्त्याज्यः सदा पुष्पफलोsपि सन् [52] If the servants never get rest or even barely satisfy their hunger by serving a person, then they should discard him like avoiding the sun-plant which is worthless even if filled with flowers and fruits always. राजमातरि देव्याञ्च कुमारे मुख्यमन्त्रिणि पुरोहिते प्रतीहारे सदा वर्तेत राजवत् [53] One should consider the king’s mother, his queens, his son, his prime minister, his priest, and his door-keeper as equal to the king himself. जीवेति प्रभुवन्प्रोक्तः कृत्याकृत्यविचक्षणः करोति निर्विकल्पं यः स भवेद्राजवल्लभः [54] If a servant who knows what actions are to be done and what should not, completes all the orders of the king without a flaw, and just says ‘Live long’ whenever he is addressed by the king, then he will become dearer to the king. प्रभुप्रसादजं वित्तं सुप्राप्तं यो निवेदयेत् वस्त्राद्यं च दधात्यङ्गे स भवेद्राजवल्लभः [55] A servant who expresses his gratitude outwardly when he receives any gift from the king, and who wears the clothes given by the king will become dearer to the king. अन्तःपुरचरैः सार्धं यो न मन्त्रं समाचरेत् न कलत्रैर्नरेन्द्रस्य स भवेद्राजवल्लभः [56] The servant who does not converse with the harem maids or the queen becomes dearer to the king. द्यूतं यो यमदूताभं हालां हालाहलोपमां पश्येद्दारान्वृथाकारान्स भवेद्राजवल्लभः [57] The servant who looks at gambling as Yama’s ambassador, wine like deadly poison, and the queens like lifeless pictures, will become dearer to the king. युद्धकालेsग्रगो यः स्यात्सदा पृष्टानुगः पुरे प्रभोर्द्वाराश्रितो हर्म्ये स भवेद्राजवल्लभः [58] He who stands in the front at the time of war, who follows at the back when in city, who stands at the door in the harem, he will become dearer to the king. सम्मतोsहम् प्रभोर्नित्यमिति मत्वा व्यतिक्रमेत् कृच्छेष्वपि न मर्यादां स भवेद्राजवल्लभः [59] He who has understood the trust the king has placed in him should not transgress his limits even in worst situations; thus he will become dearer to the king. द्वेषिद्वेषपरो नित्यमिष्टानामिष्टकर्मकृत् यो नरो नरनाथस्य स भवेद्राजवल्लभः [60] He who maintains hatred towards the king’s enemies, pleases with his actions those who are favored by the king, will become dearer to the king. प्रोक्ता प्रत्युत्तरं नाsह विरुद्धं प्रभुणा च यः न समीपे हसत्युच्चैः स भवेद्राजवल्लभः [61] He, who does not say anything against what has been told by the king, who does not laugh loudly when standing near him, will become dearer to the king. यो रणं शरणं तद्वन्मन्यते भयवर्जितः प्रवासं स्वपुरवासं स भवेद्राजवल्लभः [62] He who is fearless and accepts the war-field as a resort and journey as his home-town will become dearer to the king. न कुर्यान्नरनाथस्य योषिद्भि: सह संगतिं न निन्दां न विवादं च स भवेद्राजवल्लभः [63] He should not blame, argue or keep the company of the queens of his Master; then he will become dearer to the king.” Karataka said-“Tell me how you will first start the conversation after approaching the king?” Damanaka said- उत्तरादुत्तरवाक्यं वदतां संप्रजायते सुवृष्टिगुणसंपन्नाद्बीजाद्बीजमिवापरं [64] “As we pass statements back and forth, the conversation will continue by itself, like the seed gives rise to another seed when there has been good rains. अपायसंदर्शनजां विपत्तिं उपायसन्दर्शनजां च सिद्धिं मेधाविनो नीतिगुणप्रयुक्तां पुरःस्फुरन्तीमिव वर्णयन्ति [65] The scholars who have mastered the royal science describe the forthcoming danger and the upcoming success as if happening in front of their eyes. एकेषां वाचि शुकवदन्येषां हृदि मूकवत् हृदि वाचि तथान्येषां वल्गु वल्गन्ति सूक्तयः [66] Wise sayings are repeated by some like parrots; in some others they remain only in their minds without expression; but in some they remain both in the heart and the mouth and get expressed beautifully. I will not speak anything not suited to the occasion. When I was playing on the lap of my father, I have heard- अप्राप्तकालं वचनं बृहस्पतिरापि ब्रुवन् लभते बह्ववज्ञानं अपमानं च पुष्कलं [67] Even if Brhaspati, the preceptor of Gods utters untimely words, he has to face a lot of insults and ridicules.” Karataka said- दुराराध्या हि राजानः पर्वता इव सर्वदा व्यालाकीर्णा: सुविषमाः कठिनाः दुष्टसेविताः [68] “Snakes move about in the mountains; the kings are surrounded by wicked men. Mountains abound in thorny roads and dangerous pits; the kings are harsh mouthed and rude. The mountains are filled with rocks; the kings have cruel hearts. The mountains abound in tigers and lions; the kings always have evil doers as their company. Mountains are hard to climb; kings are hard to please. Kings are like Mountains. And also- भोगिनः कन्चुकाविष्टाः कुटिलाः क्रूरचेष्टिताः सुदुष्टा मन्त्रसाध्यास्च राजानः पन्नगा इव [69] The snakes have hoods. Kings are always after pleasures. The snakes have scaly skins. The kings wear armor. Snakes have curving bodies. Kings have crooked minds. Snakes bite and kill. Kings do cruel acts. Snakes are vicious creatures. Kings are wicked. Snakes can be controlled by magic chants. The kings can be convinced by proper talks. Kings are like snakes. द्विजिह्वाः क्रूरकर्माणोsनिष्टाश्च्छिद्रानुसारिणः दूरतोsपि हि पश्यन्ति राजानो भुजगा इव [70] Snakes have two tongues. Kings talk double meaning words. Snakes do cruel acts. Kings do cruel acts. Snakes are disliked. Kings are looked upon with envy. Snakes crawl into holes. Kings are ready to find faults. Snakes can see far. Kings know of distant things through spies. Kings are like snakes. स्वल्पमप्यपकुर्वन्ति येsभीष्टा हि महीपते: ते वह्नौ इव दह्यन्ते पतङ्गाः पापचेतसः [71] Those evil minded ones who even slightly hinder the wish of the king, burn like moths falling into the fire. दुरारोहं पदं राज्ञां सर्वलोकनमस्कृतं स्वल्पेनाप्यपकारेण ब्राह्मण्यमिव दुष्यति [72] Brahma’s world is difficult to attain. King’s proximity is difficult to attain. Brahma and king both are saluted by one and all. The king terribly gets angry for the slightest mistake like Brahma. दुराराध्याः श्रियो राज्ञां दुरापा दुष्परिग्रहः तिष्टन्त्याप इवाधारे चिरमात्मनि संस्थिताः [73] The goddesses of wealth belonging to the king are difficult to hold on to; difficult to attain; difficult to maintain. These goddesses remain happily within themselves for long like waters kept inside a vessel.” Damanaka said- “It is true. However – यस्य यस्य हि यो भावस्तेन तेन समाचरन् अनुप्रविश्य मेधावी क्षिप्रमात्मवशं नयेत् [74] One should act according to the mentality of a person. A wise man should somehow please the king and make him quickly come into one’s hold. भर्तुस्चित्तानुवर्तित्वं सुवृत्तं चानुजीविनां राक्षसाश्चापि गृह्यन्ते नित्यं च्छन्दानुवर्तिभिः [75] Acting according to the mentality of the Master is the best quality that a servant should develop. Even demons can be made favorable by acting according to their mentality. सरुषि नृपे स्तुतिवचनं तदभिमते प्रेम तद्द्विषि द्वेषः तद्दानस्य च शंसा अमन्त्रतन्त्रं वशीकरणम् [76] When the king is angry, words of praise; love towards people liked by him; hatred towards those hated by him; showering praises when he is giving charity; this is the way to bring the king under one’s control without using any magical chant.” Karataka said-“If that is your intention, then let auspiciousness accompany you in your path. Do whatever you feel like doing. {अप्रमादश्च कर्तव्यस्त्वया राज्ञः समाश्रये त्वदीयस्य शरीरस्य वयं भाग्योपजीविनः} {Be extremely careful in the presence of the king. We share the fortunes that belong to your body.”} Damanaka saluted him and went to meet Pingalaka. Seeing Damanaka coming towards him, Pingalaka said to the door-keeper – “Move your stick sideways. Allow Damanaka, the son of my previous minister to enter freely. Make him get seated in the second sphere of our arrangement.” He said-“As you command Master.” Then Damanaka entered, saluted the king and permitted by him sat on the allotted seat. The king lifted his right hand decorated by diamond-like nails and placed it on the head of Damanaka; then with due honors he questioned- “Are you doing well? How is it that you are seen after a long time?” {DAMANAKA COMMENTS ABOUT THE UNFAIRNESS METED OUT TO HIM BY REMOVING HIM FROM SERVICES} Damanaka said-“We are of no use to the feet of the Lord; yet I need to tell you something at this hour, because a king gets benefitted by the best, middle and worst of all his attendants. It is said- दन्तस्य निष्कोषणकेन नित्यं कर्णस्य कण्डूयकेन वापि तृणेन कार्यं भवतीश्वराणां किमङ्ग वाग्घस्तवता नरेण [77] Even a grass shoot is useful to you Lords when removing stuck particles from the teeth or when scratching the inner ear. What to say of a man with speech and hands? We are the servants of your highness by tradition. We will follow you even at the times of difficulties, though we are not rightfully employed by you. Even then it is not proper for your highness to act like this. It is said- स्थानेष्वेव नियोक्तव्या भृत्याश्चाभरणानि च नहि चूडामणिः पादे प्रभवामीति बध्यते [78] Servants and ornaments should be placed at proper positions. The excellent gem ‘Choodaamani’ which should be worn on the head cannot be tied to the feet by a vain headed Lord. Because- अनभिज्ञो गुणानां यो न भृत्यैरनुगम्यते धनाड्योsपि कुलीनोsपि क्रमायातोsपि भूपतिः [79] A king be he rich, or of a renowned family or of a great dynasty, if he does not recognize the good qualities of a servant, he will lose the services of that servant. असमैः समीयमानः समैश्च परिहीयमानसत्कारः धुरि चानियुज्यमानस्त्रिभिः अर्थपतिं त्यजति भृत्यः [80] If a king compares the servant with others of lower qualities, or does not treat with due honor compared to others of equal qualities, if he is not placed in the proper position in the regular duties, a servant will discard such a master. If a king foolishly places the servants deserving higher positions at wretched posts, they will not stay there at all; it is not their fault but the king’s. It is said- कनकभूषणसंग्रहणोचितो यदि मणिस्त्रपुणि प्रतिबध्यते न स विरौति न चापि स शोभते भवति योजयितुर्वचनीयता [81] If the gem that is fit to be embedded in the gold ornament instead is fitted on a tin ornament, the gem might not object; it does not look proper also; but the fellow who did such a stupid act will be blamed. And your highness said- “you have not been seen for a long time”, then listen to this- सव्यदक्षिणयोर्यत्र विशेषो नास्ति हस्तयो: कस्तत्र क्षणमप्यार्यो विद्यमानगतिर्वसेत् [82] Which gentleman of purposeful ventures will stay even for a second where there is no difference observed between the left and right hand? काचे मणि मणऔ काचो येषां बुद्धिर्विकल्पते न तेषां सन्निधौ भृत्यो नाममात्रोsपि तिष्टति [83] A servant will not stay even for namesake in the presence of a king who misconceives gem as glass and glass as gem. परीक्षका यत्र न सन्ति देशे नार्घन्ति रत्नानि समुद्रजानि आभीरदेशे किल चन्द्रकान्तं त्रिभिर्वराटैर्विपणन्ति गोपाः [84] Where there are not experts who can judge the gems, the extraordinary gems produced in the oceans have no value at all. In such solitary lands of tribal-clans, the cowherds sell the ‘moon stone’, three cowries a piece. लोहिताख्यस्य च मणेः पद्मरागस्य चान्तरं यत्र नास्ति कथं तत्र क्रियते रत्नविक्रयः [85] Who can sell jewels at a place, where the difference between the ordinary red stone and ruby is not known? निर्विशेषं यदा स्वामी समं भृत्येषु वर्तते तत्रोद्यमसमर्थानामुत्साह: परिहीयते [86] Where the Master treats equally all the servants, the servant who is efficient in his work loses his enthusiasm for work. न विना पार्थिवो भृत्यैर्न भृत्याः पार्थिवं विना तेषां च व्यवहारोsयम् परस्परनिबन्धनं [87] The servant cannot be there without the king; the king cannot be there without the servant. They are both bound to each other in all enterprises. भृत्यैर्विना स्वयं राजा लोकानुग्रहकारिभि: मयूखैरिव दीप्तांशुस्तेजस्व्यपि न शोभते [88] The king does not shine without his servants who pleasantly handle the people, like the lustrous sun shines not without his rays. अरै: संधार्यते नाभिर्नाभौ चारः प्रतिष्टिताः स्वामिसेवाकयोरेवं वृत्तिचक्रम् प्रवर्तते [89] The spokes support the nave; the nave holds the spokes together. The wheel of work rotates with the co-operation of both the servant and master. शिरसा विधृता नित्यं स्नेहेन परिपालिता केशाsपि विरज्यन्ते नि:स्नेहाः किम् न सेवकाः [90] Even the hairs on the head which are taken care of daily with oil etc, become dry and colorless if even one day they are left uncared for; what to say of servants? राजा तुष्टो हि भृत्यानामर्थमात्रं प्रयच्छति ते तु संमानमात्रेण प्राणैरप्युपकुर्वते [91] When the king is pleased, he offers only money to the servants. But the servants when treated with respect show their gratitude even by offering their own lives. एवं ज्ञात्वा नरेन्द्रेण भृत्याः कार्या विचक्षणाः कुलीनाः शौर्यसंयुक्ताः शक्ता भक्ताः क्रमागता: [92] Knowing this, the king should employ servants who are talented, who come from a good family, who are endowed with qualities like bravery, who are efficient, who are devoted and who are from the family which has served for generations. {Damanaka has almost convinced the king why he should be re-employed. Now he describes the qualities of a good servant and presents himself as one such} {QUALITIES OF A GOOD SERVANT} यः कृत्वा सुकृतं राज्ञो दुष्करं हितमुत्तमं लज्जया वक्ति नो किन्चित्तेन राजा सहायवान् [93] If the servant who has done something useful to the king which is very difficult and extremely beneficial, does not mention it feeling shy, then that type of servant is really useful to the king. यस्मिन्कृत्यं समावेश्य निर्विशङ्केन चेतसा आस्यते सेवक: स स्यात् कलत्रमिव चापरं [94] If the king can remain with completely relaxed mind after entrusting the work to the servant, then that servant is worth his name and is like another wife. योsनाहूतः समभ्येति द्वारि तिष्टति सर्वदा पृष्टः सत्यं मितं ब्रूते स भृत्योsर्हो महीभुजां [95] He who comes even without called for, he who stays at the door always, he who when questioned says little but truthful words, he is fit to serve the king. अनादिष्टोsपि भूपस्य दृष्ट्वा हानिकरं च यः यतते तस्य नाशाय स भृत्योsर्हो महीभुजां [96] Though not being told, if the servant tries to remove any harm that may occur to his Master, he is fit to serve the king. ताडितोsपि दुरुक्तोsपि दण्डितोsपि महीभुजा यो न चिन्तयते पापं स भृत्योsर्हो महीभुजां [97] Though beaten, though rudely spoken to, though punished, the servant who does not think ill of the Master is fit to serve the king. न गर्वं कुरुते माने नापमाने च तप्यते स्वाकारं रक्षयेद्यस्तु स भृत्योsर्हो महीभुजां [98] The servant who does not act with arrogance, he who does not burn with anger when insulted, he who keeps his feelings to himself, is fit to serve the king. न क्षुधा पीड्यते यस्तु निद्रया न कदाचन न च शीतातपाद्यैश्च स भृत्योsर्हो महीभुजां [99] The servant who never gets affected by hunger or sleep; or cold or heat, is fit to serve the king. श्रुत्वा सान्ग्रामिकीं वार्तां भविष्यं स्वामिनं प्रति प्रसन्नास्यो भवेद्यस्तु स भृत्योsर्हो महीभुजां [100] The servant who feels happy by hearing about a battle that will ensue with his Master is fit to serve the king. सीमावृद्धिं समायाति शुक्लपक्ष इवोडुराट् नियोगसंस्थिते यस्मिन्सभृत्योsर्हो महीभुजां [101] After employing the servant if the borders of the kingdom extend more like the moon in the full moon phase, he is fit to serve the king. सीमा संकोचमायाति वह्नौ चर्म इवाहितं स्थिते तस्मिन्स तु त्याज्यो भृत्यो राज्यं समीहता [102] If the king is concerned about his kingdom, he should get rid of that servant by whose stay, the kingdom shrinks like the leather put inside the fire. Again, if you disregard me thinking ‘This one is just a fox’, that is not proper. {EFFICIENCY IS NOT IN APPEARANCE} It is said- कौशेयं कृमिजं सुवर्णमुपलाद्दूर्वापि गोरोमत: पङ्कात्तामरसं शशाङ्कोदधेरिन्दीवरं गोमयात् काष्टादग्निरहे: फणादपि मणिर्गोपित्ततो रोचना प्राकाश्यं स्वगुणोदयेन गुणिनो गच्छन्ति किं जन्मना [103] Silk is gotten from a worm; gold from the stone; ‘doorva’ from cow’s hair; lotus from mire; moon from the ocean; blue lotus from cow dung; fire from the wood; gem from the snake’s hood; yellow pigment (gorochana) from the bile of the cow; good men shine because of their virtues; what does birth matter? मूषिका गृहजातापि हन्तव्या स्वापकारिणी भक्ष्यप्रदानैर्मार्जारो हितकृत्प्रार्त्यथेsन्यतः [104] Even if the mouse is born in one’s own house, it should be killed as it is harmful to oneself. A cat brought from elsewhere is offered tasty foods and kept as a pet because it is useful. एरण्डभिण्डार्कनडऐ: प्रभूतैरपि संचितैः दारुकृत्यं यथा नास्ति तथैवाज्ञैः प्रयोजनं [105] The castor plant and other reeds collected in abundance cannot be made use of like wood. So it is with ignorant people. किं भक्तेनासमर्थेन किं शक्तेनापकारिणा भक्तं शक्तञ्च मां राजन्नावज्ञातुं त्वमर्हसि [106] What is the use of a person who is devoted but incapable? What is the use of a person who is strong but harmful? I am devoted and strong too. You should not ignore me, O king.” {THE KING’S MISTAKE IN TRUSTING A CHEAT} Pingalaka said-“Let it be so then. Whether you are talented or not, you are the son of my ex-minister and I have known you for long. So whatever you want to say, say it without hesitation.” Damanaka said- “Lord! There is something I want to tell you.” Pingalaka said-“Then tell me whatever you want to.” Damanaka said- अपि स्वल्पतरं कार्यं यद्भवेत् पृथिवीपतेः तन्न वाच्यं सभामध्ये प्रोवाचेदं बृहस्पति: [107] “Brhaspati has stated that any work, even if it be small should not be disclosed in the open court. Therefore his highness should listen to me in private; because- षट्कर्णो भिद्यते मन्त्रः चतुर्कर्णेह स्थिरो भवेत् तस्मात्सर्वप्रयत्नेन षट्कर्णं वर्जयेत् सुधीः [108] The discussion which is heard by six ears will certainly leak. The discussion heard by four ears will be stable. Therefore a wise man should always avoid six ears.” Then the tigers, leopards, wolves and others heard the words of Damanaka. They understood Pingalaka’s intention and immediately left the assembly; others were made to. Then Damanaka said- “Your highness had the intention of drinking water from the river. Why then stay in hiding here?” Pingalaka managed a stupid grin and said-“Nothing actually”. Damanaka said- “If you do not want to tell me, it is alright. It is said- दारेषु किन्चित्स्वजनेषु किञ्चित् गोप्यं वयस्येषु सुतेषु किञ्चित् युक्तं न वा युक्तमिदं विचिन्त्य वदेद्विपश्चिन्महतोsनुरोधात् [109] Some things should be hidden from the wife, some from relatives, some from friends of the same age, some from the sons. A wise man should first think well about the right or wrong of the situation and then only speak even if pressurized by great men. Hearing these words, Pingalaka thought-“This Damanaka seems to be trustworthy. So I will confide in him my thoughts. It is said- सुहृदि निरन्तरचित्ते गुणवति भृत्येsनुवर्तिनी कलत्रे स्वामिनि सौह्रदयुक्ते निवेद्य दुःखं सुखी भवति [110] If one confides his troubles to a stable minded friend, or a good servant, or a devoted wife, or a compassionate master,he will become happy.” “Hey Damanaka, do you hear the loud sound coming from far?” Damanaka said- “Lord! I do hear it. So what?” Pingalaka said-“Good one! I want to leave this forest.” Damanaka said-“What for?” Pingalaka said-“Because, some hitherto unseen creature has entered this forest today. That alone is bellowing like this. The size of the creature should be imagined by the sound it is making; and its strength should be imagined by its size.” Damanaka said- “If you are frightened only because of the sound Lord, then it is not proper. It is said- अम्भसा भिद्यते सेतुस्तथा मन्त्रोप्यरक्षितः पैशुन्याद्भिद्यते स्नेहो भिद्यते वाग्भिरातुरः [111] The bridge breaks down by waters; secret by not being protected; friendship by maliciousness; an anxious person by his words. Therefore it is not right that your highness should leave this forest which has been owned by your ancestors and has been handed over to you as a family property. Sound can come from various sources like drum, flute, Veena, Mrdanga, clapping of hands, war-drum, conch and others. One should therefore not get frightened by sound alone. It is said- अत्युत्कटे च रौद्रे च शत्रौ प्राप्ते न हीयते धैर्यं यस्य महीनाथो न स याति पराभवं [112] The king who does not panic even when facing an attack by a terrifying enemy of enormous strength, never gets defeated. दर्शितभयेsपि धातरि धैर्यध्वंसो भवेन्न धीराणां शोषितसरसि निदाघे नितरामेवोद्धत: सिन्धुः [113] Even if the creator himself instigates fear, the brave ones do not lose their courage. A lake can dry up in summer; but the ocean reacts with high rising waves. And also- यस्य न विपदि विषादः संपदि हर्षो रणे न भीरुत्वं तं भुवनत्रयतिलकं जनयति जननी सुतं विरलं [114] Rare is mother who delivers a son who does not panic in dangers, who is not excited by wealth, who does not exhibit fear in battles, who is indeed an ornament for the three worlds. And also- शक्तिवैकल्यनम्रस्य निःसारत्वाल्लघीयसः जन्मिनो मानहीनस्य तृणस्य च समागतिः [115] One who acts humble because of lacking strength, who acts lowly because of lacking efficiency, such a disdainful person who is born on this earth is no better than a grass shoot. And also- अन्यप्रतापमासाद्य यो दृडत्वं न गच्छति जतुजाभरणस्येव रूपेणापि हि तस्य किं? [116] What is the worth of a man who maintains no stability in front of an enemy? He is equal to the ornaments made of lac, beautiful but worthless. It is said- पूर्वमेव मया ज्ञातं पूर्नमेतद्धि मेदसा अनुप्रविश्य विज्ञातं यावच्चर्म च दारु च [117] I thought so in the beginning that this was filled with flesh. But after entering it I understood it to be just leather and wood.” Pingalaka said- “How is that so?” Damanaka said- [2] शृगालदुन्धुभिकथा {THE STORY OF THE FOX AND THE DRUM} “Once, a fox named Gomaayu was wandering here and there in the forest, feeling very thirsty and hungry. Then he came across a deserted battle-ground where two armies had fought long time ago. There was a drum fallen in the midst of some plants. Whenever the wind blew the creepers next to it stuck it hard creating weird sounds. The fox heard it. He immediately panicked and thought- “Alas! I am in for destruction. Before I am seen by the creature making this sound, I will go elsewhere. Or, may be I should not do it immediately. It is said- भये वा यदि वा हर्षे संप्राप्ते यो विमर्शयेत् कृत्यं न कुरुते वेगान्न स संतापमाप्नुयात् [118] He who ponders a while when in fear or joy and does not do anything hastily, will never come to grief. Therefore I fill find out from what object this sound is coming from.” In this manner, he gathered up courage and wondering about it, slowly moved forward and saw the drum. He saw what it was and going near it, hit it with curiosity. Again he thought happily –“Aha! After a long time I have obtained some food. This will be indeed filled with abundant flesh, sinews and blood.” He somehow managed to tear open the hard leather covering the drum and made a hole in it. Feeling pleased in the mind, he entered it through the hole. His teeth were broken by tearing off the leather covering. He was disappointed by seeing the wood pieces and recited the verse- पूर्वमेव मया ज्ञातं (I thought so in the beginning). Therefore one should not be frightened of just some sound which is heard.” Pingalaka said-“Oh! Look at all the people who are with me. They are all terribly frightened and want to run away from here. How do think I can remain brave in such a circumstance?” Damanaka said-“Master! This is not their fault. Servants always act like their masters. It is said- अश्व: शस्त्रं शास्त्रं वीणावाणी नरश्च नारी च पुरुषविशेषप्राप्ता भवन्त्ययोग्याश्च योग्याश्च [119] The horse, weapon, scripture, Veena (musical instrument), speech, man, woman, all become good or bad according to the person who controls them. Therefore you muster up some courage and wait for me here. Meanwhile I will go and find out the source of that sound. After that we will do whatever needs to be done.” Pingalaka said-“What! Are you ready to go there?” Damanaka said-“Is there anything that can or cannot be done by the good servant when the Master has commanded? It is said- स्वाम्यादेशात्सुभृत्यस्य न भीः संजायते क्वचित् प्रविशेन्मुखमाहेयम् दुस्तरं वा महार्णवं [120] When the master commands, there will not be any fear at all in the mind of a good servant; he can enter even the mouth of a serpent or the uncrossable ocean. स्वाम्यादिष्टस्तु यो भृत्यः समं विषममेव च मन्यते न स संधार्यो भूभुजा भूतिमिच्छता [121] Even after commanding if the servant starts thinking about the good or bad of the action, he should not be kept in the services by the king who desires prosperity.” Pingalaka said-“Good one! If that is the case, then go. Let auspiciousness accompany you in your path.” Damanaka saluted him and started towards the place where Sanjeevaka, the bull was making the sound. {Pingalaka knows the deceitful nature of Damanaka and feels apprehensive about trusting him.} When Damanaka went away, Pingalaka stuck by fear started to think like this- “Ah! I did not do the right thing by trusting him. I should not have confided my thoughts to him. This Damanaka might be accepting salaries from both parties and may have evil intentions towards me for not employing him in the minister’s post. It is said- ये भवन्ति महीपस्य संमानितविमानिताः यतन्ते तस्य नाशाय कुलीना अपि सर्वदा [122] Those servants who have been once complimented and later insulted by the king, always try to bring about his destruction even if they are born of a good family. Therefore in order to understand his real intention, I will move elsewhere and wait there, because Damanaka might bring the enemy with him and try to kill me. न वध्यन्ते ह्यविश्वस्ता बलिभिर्दुर्बला अपि विश्वस्तास्त्वेव वध्यन्ते बलवन्तोsपि दुर्बलैः [123] Even weak persons do not get killed by stronger ones if they do not trust them. But by trusting, even a strong person might get killed by weaker persons. बृहस्पतेरपि प्राज्ञो न विश्वासं व्रजेन्नर: य इच्छेदात्मनो वृद्धिमायुष्यं च सुखानि च [124] A wise man should not trust even Brhaspati, the preceptor of gods if he desires his own welfare, life and happiness. शपथैः संधितस्यापि न विश्वासं व्रजेद्रिपो: राज्यलोभोद्यतो वृत्र: शक्रेण शपथैर्हतः [125] One should not trust the enemy even if he tries to compromise with some promise. The demon Vrtra was killed by Indra because he trusted Indra’s words, being greedy for the kingdom. न विश्वासं विना शत्रुर्देवानामपि सिध्यति विश्वासात्त्रिदशेन्द्रेण दितेर्गर्भो विदारित: [126] Even the gods cannot win over their enemies if the enemies do not trust them. Indra could tear off the womb of Diti only because she trusted him.” Having thought like this, Pingalaka moved to another place and remained alone, watching over the path which Damanaka took. {Damanaka decides to use the gullible Sanjeevaka to regain his post as a minister} Damanaka meanwhile reached the place where Sanjeevaka was staying. He was pleased to know that it was only a bull which was making the noise. He thought-“Aha! It is a good thing that has happened. Using this bull, I will bring Pingalaka under control through the tricks of pacification and division. न कौलीन्यान्न सौहार्दात्नृपो वाक्ये प्रवर्तते मन्त्रिणां यावदभ्येति व्यसनं शोकमेव च [127] The king acts as per the advice of the ministers only when he encounters a problem or tragedy; otherwise he ignores their words even if they are his true friends or belong to a reputable family. सदैवापद्गतो राजा भोग्यो भवति मन्त्रिणां अत एव हि वाञ्छन्ति मन्त्रिणः सापदं नृपं [128] The king who is in the midst of problems becomes an enjoyable object to the ministers. That is why they always wish for their king to be facing some problem or other. यथा वाञ्छन्ति नीरोग: कदाचिन्न चिकित्सकं तथापद्रहितो राजा सचिवं न वान्छति [129] A man without illness does not seek a doctor who treats diseases. Likewise a king who has no problems does not have much regard for his minister.” Thinking in this manner, he started towards Pingalaka. {DECEITFUL DAMANAKA CREATES AN IMAGINARY PROBLEM AND PROVIDES A SOLUTION TO GET THE KING’S FAVOR} Pingalaka saw him coming; hiding his inner thoughts, he quickly returned to his original formation of rings and remained there. Damanaka approached Pingalaka, saluted him and sat down. Pingalaka said-“Have you seen that creature?” Damanaka said-“I saw it by the grace of your highness.” Pingalaka said-“Really?” Damanaka said-“Can a lie be uttered in the benign presence of your highness? It is said- अपि स्वल्पमसत्यं यः पुरो वदति भूभुजां देवानाञ्च विनश्येत स द्रुतं सुमहानपि [130] If one utters the least untruth in front of kings or gods he will get destroyed immediately even if he is a great person. सर्वदेवमयो राजा मनुजा संप्रकीर्तितः तस्मात्तं देववत्पश्येन्न व्यलीकेन न कर्हिचित् [131] The king is hailed by men as the form of all gods in essence. Therefore one should regard the king like a god and never act offensive to him. सर्वदेवमयस्यापि विशेषो नृपतेरयं शुभाशुभफलं सद्यो नृपाद्देवाद्भवान्तरे [132] Though the king is the essence of all gods, one special quality lies with the king alone. The good and bad result occurs through the king in this birth only, the results given by the gods may occur in other births.” Pingalaka said-“You must have really seen that creature. Great ones do not get angry with the lower category of beings. That is why you were not hurt by him. तृणानि न उन्मूलयन्ति प्रभञ्जनो मृदूनि नीचै: प्रणतानि सर्वत: स्वभाव एवोन्नतचेतसामयं महान्महत्स्वेव करोति विक्रमं [133] The god of wind which can uproot huge trees does not uproot the grass which are soft and are always in low salutatory position. This is indeed the quality of great men. Strong men attack and conquer only strong ones. गण्डस्थलेषु मदवारिषु बद्धरागमत्तभ्रमद्भ्रमरपादतलाहतोपि कोपं न गच्छति नितान्तबलोsपि नागस्तुल्ये बले तु बलवान् परिकोपमेति [134] The extremely strong elephant which oozes ‘temporin’ on its neck does not get angry with the bees which are hovering around attracted by the secretion and which keep hitting the elephant’s neck with their legs. The strong ones show their anger only on equally strong persons.” Damanaka said- True! He is a great being and we are lowly creatures. Even then if the master so wills, I will make him become your servant.” Pingalaka said-“Do you think you can do it?” Damanaka said-“What is impossible for the intelligent?” It is said- न तच्छत्रैर्न नागेन्द्रैर्न हयैर्न पदातिभिः कार्यं संसिद्धिमभ्येति यथा बुद्ध्या प्रसाधितं [135] That work which cannot be accomplished through weapons, huge elephants, horses, and foot-soldiers becomes possible by using the brains.” Pingalaka said-“If that is so, then you are appointed as my minister. From now onwards you are completely responsible for the rewards and punishments and do the need-wise.” {DECEITFUL DAMANAKA CREATES FEAR IN THE GULLIBLE MIND OF SANJEEVAKA} Then Damanaka quickly went back to Sanjeevaka and addressed him with a derogatory tone- “Hey you wicked bull, come here, come here. Master Pingalaka has invited you. How dare you meaninglessly bellow like that again and again without any fear?” Hearing his words, Sanjeevaka said-“O good one! Who is this Pingalaka?” Damanaka said-“What! You don’t know who Pingalaka is? Then wait here for a second. You will know for sure by the result of your action. Our Master Pingalaka, the lion is staying nearby surrounded by his entire animal retinue under the fig tree.” Hearing this, Sanjeevaka felt as if he was dead and was highly distressed. He said-“O good one! You appear to be of a saintly character and quite an expert in words. Therefore if you are really taking me to your Master, then promise me sanctuary and make the master act graceful towards me.” Damanaka said-“You are indeed speaking the truth. That is the right thing to do. Because- पर्यन्तो लभ्यते भूमे: समुद्रस्य गिरेरपि न कथन्चिन्महीपस्य चित्तान्त: केनचित्क्वचित् [136] You can reach the ends of the earth, or ocean or mountain. But you can never know the depths of thoughts in a king’s mind. Therefore, you remain here only. I will meanwhile watch for the right moment and take you there.” Sanjeevaka agreed and waited there. {DAMANAKA CREATES FEAR IN THE MIND OF PINGALAKA ALSO} Damanaka went to Pingalaka and said-“Master! That is not an ordinary being. He is the bull which acts as the vehicle for Lord Maheshwara! When I enquired him, he said-‘Lord Maheshwara feeling pleased asked me to graze the grass growing on the banks of River Yamuna. What more, this forest has been gifted to me by the Lord for my sports’!” Pingalaka panicked and said-“I now know the truth. Without the grace of the God herbivorous animals cannot move freely bellowing in this jungle filled with wild animals. So what did you tell him?” Damanaka said-“Master! I told him-‘this forest is the abiding place of the lion named Pingalaka which is the vehicle of Goddess Chandikaa Devi. So you are our honored guest. So you go to him as an affectionate brother and eating, drinking and moving together with him you can spend your time at one place.’ He also accepted my suggestion. He replied happily-“Please make the king promise me sanctuary.’ Your command will be obeyed!” Hearing this Pingalaka said-“You are very intelligent. You are an able minister. Good! You have done exactly what I would have thought of doing. I promise him the sanctuary. However you request him also to vouch for my safety and bring him quickly here. {PINGALAKA PRAISES DAMANAKA’S EFFICIENCY IN HANDLING THINGS} It is well-said, अन्तःसारैरकुटिलैरच्छिद्रै: सुपरीक्षितै: मन्त्रिभिर्धार्यते राज्यं सुस्तंभैरिव मन्दिरं [137] The pillars which are strong inside/the ministers who have stability of mind, which are not crooked/who have no malice, which have no cracks/ who have no faults, which are well supervised at the time of construction / who are well-examined before appointment, hold the house/support the kingdom. Also- मंत्रिणाम् भिन्नसंधाने भिषजाम् सान्निपातिके कर्मणि व्यज्यते प्रज्ञा स्वस्थे को वा न पण्डितः [138] The intelligence of the doctor is known when he treats an epidemic. The intelligence of a minister is known when he negotiates successfully with people who have differences of opinion. When everything is alright who does not act wisely?” Damanaka saluted him and went to meet Sanjeevaka. He was happy and thought-“Aha! Master is well-pleased and believes all my words. There is nothing more that could make me feel gratified! It is said- अमृतं शिशिरे वह्निरमृतं प्रियदर्शनम् अमृतं राजसंमानममृतं क्षीरभोजनम् [139] Fire is nectar in cold; the sight of the beloved is nectar; honor bestowed by the king is nectar; food prepared with milk is nectar.” {DAMANAKA WARNS SANJEEVAKA NOT TO DISREGARD HIM IN THE FUTURE} He went near Sanjeevaka and said full of affection-“O Friend! I have requested the king to offer you sanctuary. So you can go to him without any apprehension. However, when you have attained the grace of the king, you should maintain your gratitude towards me. You should not become arrogant and treat me as you like. By your company I will also reach the heights acting as a minister controlling the entire kingdom. If it is done like this, then both of us will enjoy the prosperity of the kingdom. आखेटकस्य धर्मेण विभवः स्युर्वशे नृणां नरपतीन् प्रेरत्येको हन्त्यन्योsत्र मृगानिव [140] The prosperities are attained by men as in the case of hunting only. One man provokes and the other man kills the animals. One man influences the king to favor someone and both share the benefits. यो न पूज्यते गर्वादुत्तमाधममध्यमान् भूपसंमानमान्योsपि भ्रश्यते दन्तिलो यथा [141] He who disregards with arrogance, the best, middle and lowest categories employed by the king loses his position like Dantila though he was in a very much acclaimed position close to the king.” Sanjeevaka said-“How is that so?” Damanaka said- [3] दन्तिलगोरंभयोर्कथा {THE STORY OF DANTILA AND GORAMBHA} “There is a city on this earth named Vardhamaana. In that city there lived a merchant named Dantila who sold varieties of things and was one of the well-acclaimed people in the city. He performed many jobs connected to both the city and the palace; so the king and the people admired him very much. What more! Any other man equal to him in efficiency was not seen or heard so far. It is rightly stated- नरपतिहितकर्ता द्वेष्यतां याति लोके जनपदहितकर्ता त्यज्यते पार्थिवेन्द्रैः इति महति विरोधे वर्तमाने नृपतिजनपदानां दुर्लभ: कार्यकर्ता [142] A person who acts for the good of the king is hated by the citizens. A person who acts for the good of the people is rejected by the king. When such a contradictory situation exists, it is indeed rare to find a person who acts for the good of both the people and the king. As time went by, there rose an occasion where Dantila’s daughter got married. Dantila invited all the citizens, the royal families and welcomed them all with great honor. All of them were offered food; and clothes were gifted to them. After the marriage was over, the king along with his queens and servants was invited by Dantila to his house and honored. There was a servant named Gorambha who regularly swept and mopped the floor in the palace. He also had come to Dantila’s house with the other invitees. He mistakenly sat in a place not suited to his lowly status and so was held by the neck and thrown out of the house by Dantila. From that day onwards Gorambha spent his days sighing sadly remembering the insult that was dealt out to him by Dantila. He could not even sleep peacefully at nights. He kept on thinking of ways to make that merchant lose the favor of the king. “Or what is the use of simply worrying like this? I am only making my body fall sick! I can in no way harm him in any manner. It is rightly said- यो ह्यपकर्तुमशक्त: कुप्यति कथमसौ नरोsत्र निर्लज्ज: उत्पतितोsपि हि चणक: शक्त: किं भ्राष्ट्रकं भङ्ग्तुं [143] How is it that this person incapable of taking revenge on his enemy show his anger on others without shame? Can the grain ever break the frying pan even if it jumps high?” Once some early morning the king was lying on his bed half awake. Dantila was sweeping the floor and uttered casually- “How insolent Dantila is that he even dares to embrace the queen?” Hearing these words the king got up excitedly and said to Gorambha- “Hey Hey Gorambha! Is it true what you just now said? Was the queen embraced by Dantila?” Gorambha said-“Lord! I was gambling all night and suddenly sleep overtook me for a few seconds now. I do not know what I said.” The king enviously thought within himself-“This person has free entry into all the rooms of the palace. He might have seen sometime Dantila embracing the queen. That is why he might have said those words. It is said- यद्वान्छति दिवा मर्त्यो वीक्षते वा करोति वा तत्स्वप्नेsपि तदभ्यासाद्ब्रूते वाथ करोति वा [144] What the man wants, sees or does in the day-time, he will say and do the same in the dream being engrossed in those very thoughts. And also- शुभं वा यदिवा पापं य यन्नृणां हृदिसंस्थितं सुगूडमपि तज्ज्ञेयं स्वप्नवाक्यात्तथा मदात् [145] The good or bad in the heart of a man even if hidden from others gets revealed when he blabbers it in the dream or in the intoxicated state. {FICKLE NATURE OF WOMEN} Or, what is there to disprove this fact about women that- जल्पन्ति सार्धमन्येन पश्यन्त्यन्यं सविभ्रमा: ह्रद्गतं चिन्तयन्त्यन्यं प्रियः को नाम योषितां [146] They converse with one; they shoot a charming look at another; they will be lost in thoughts about still another one; who is actually a true beloved for a woman?! And again- एकेन स्मितपाटलाधररुचो जल्पत्यनल्पाक्षरं वीक्ष्यन्तेsन्यमित: स्फुरत्कुमुदिनीफुल्लोल्लसल्लोचना: दूरोदारचरित्रचित्रविभवं ध्यायन्ति चान्यं धिया केनेत्थं परमार्थतोsर्थवदिव प्रेमास्ति वामभ्रुवाम् [147] With the lips slightly opened in smile and shining with pale-red hue they converse with one man without stopping for a second; with eyes laughing like the fully blossomed night lotuses they look at another at the same time; in the mind they keep thinking about still another renowned man of fame and beauty; with whom do these ladies with lovely eyes actually maintain love is a matter beyond comprehension. And also- नाग्निस्तृप्यति काष्टानां नापगानां महोदधि: नान्तक: सर्वभूतानां न पुंसां वामलोचना [148] Fire never has enough of wood (fuel). The ocean has never enough of rivers. Death has never enough of the beings. The ladies with lovely eyes never have enough of men. रहो नास्ति क्षणो नास्ति नास्ति प्रार्थयिता नर: तेन नारद नारीणां सतीत्वमुपजायते [149] May be there is no privacy; may be there is no time to spare; maybe the man of the heart is not available. O Naarada! Only because of these reasons a woman remains chaste! यो मोहान्मन्यते मूढो रक्तेयं मम कामिनी स तस्या वशगो नित्यं भवेत्क्रीडाशकुन्तवत् [150] A man who stupidly thinks, ‘This pretty maiden loves me’, is completely under her control like a pet bird. तासां वाक्यानि कृत्यानि स्वल्पानि सुगुरूण्यपि करोति यो कृतैर्लोके लघुत्वं याति सर्वत: [151] If a man does actions -big or small, as told by women, he is regarded in a very low light by everyone everywhere. स्त्रियं च यः प्रार्थयते संनिकर्षं च गच्छति ईषच्च कुरुते सेवां तमेवेच्छन्ति योषितः [152] The women like a person who pleads with a girl, approaches her and serves her even slightly (to get her company). अनर्थित्वान्मनुष्याणाम् भयात्परिजनस्य च मर्यादायाममर्यादा: स्त्रियः तिष्टन्ति सर्वदा [153] The women by nature do not abide by the rules of chastity. They remain as if abiding by rules because of the lack of men who beg for their company, or because of the fear of family and relatives. नासां कश्चिदगम्योsस्ति नासां च वयसि स्थिति: विरूपं रूपवन्तं वा पुमानित्येव भुञ्जते [154] No man is avoidable for a woman because of his age or position. Handsome or ugly she enjoys any man she feels like. रक्तो हि जायते भोग्यो नारीणां शाटको यथा घृष्यते यो दशालंबी नितम्बे विनिवेशित: [155] The red colored garment stuck tightly to the hip portion of the lady wears out soon. The rogue also, attracted to the woman, his mind stuck to the beauty of her hips wears away soon. अलक्तको यथा रक्तो निष्पीड्य पुरुषस्तथा अबलाभिर्बलाद्रक्तः पादमूले निपात्यते [156] The red colored ‘mehndi’ is crushed and applied to the feet. Likewise a man attracted towards a woman is trampled under the foot by the lady.” In this manner the king lamented for some time and from that day onwards treated Dantila with disdain. What more, Dantila was not even allowed to enter the palace anymore. Dantila was puzzled by the sudden disfavor of the king and thought- “Alas! It is well said- कोsर्थान् प्राप्य न गर्वितो विषयिणः कस्यापदोsस्तं गताः: स्त्रीभिः कस्य न खण्डितं भुवि मनः को नाम राज्ञां प्रिय: क: कालस्य न गोचरान्तर्गत: कोsर्थी गतो गौरवं को वा दुर्जनवागुरासु पतित: क्षेमेण यात: पुमान् [157] Who has not become arrogant after becoming wealthy! Which man after sense pleasures has seen the end of his troubles! Who has been not become heart-broken because of a woman! Who has been ever affectionately treated by a king! Who has missed getting seen by the Death! Which beggar has been treated with respect! Who has come out safely after getting entrapped in the words of the wicked! And also- काके शौचं द्यूतकारे च सत्यं सर्पे क्षान्ति: स्त्रीषु कामोपशान्ति: क्लीबे धैर्यं मद्यपे तत्त्वचिन्ता राजा मित्रं केन श्रुतं दर्शतं वा [158] Who has seen or heard cleanliness in the crow, honesty in a gambler, forgiveness in a snake, lust-satiation in a woman, courage in a coward, philosophical thinking in an alcoholic, a king as a friend? Another thing is, I have not in any way offended the king or his relatives even in a dream, then why has the king disfavored me suddenly?” Once, the cleaning servant Gorambha saw Dantila getting stopped from entering the palace by the doorkeepers standing at the gate. He laughed aloud and said to the door-keepers, “Ho Ho Door-keepers! This Dantila is very much favored by the king. He has the power to reward or punish you. If you stop him, you will also be held by the neck and get thrown out, as it happened to me.” Hearing this, Dantila started to think, “Indeed all this must be happening because of this Gorambha. It is rightly said- अकुलीनोsपि मूर्खोsपि भूपालं योsत्र सेवते अपि सम्मानहीनोsपि स सर्वत्र प्रपूज्यते [159] Even if born in a low caste family, even if he is an idiot, even if he is not worth any respect, a person who is in the service of the king is worshipped everywhere. अपि कापुरुषो भीरु: स्याच्चेन्नृपतिसेवकः तथापि न पराभूतिं जनादाप्नोति मानवः [160] Even if the king’s servant is contemptible and a coward, he will not be offended by anyone.” In this manner, he lamented for a long time. Feeling embarrassed, feeling apprehensive, looking pale, he returned home. In the evening, he invited Gorambha to his house, honored him by gifting a pair of clothes and said, “O Good man! Last time I did not throw you out because I was enraged at you personally. As you sat off in the top most place even before the Brahmins occupied their seats, I lost my control and insulted you. Forgive me please.” Gorambha felt extremely pleased by the pair of clothes gifted to him. He felt as if the heaven was at hand. He said, “O great man! I have forgiven you. Because you have honored me with gifts, now see how I get you back into the favor of the king with my intelligence!” Having said this, he happily walked home carrying his gifts. It is rightly said- स्तोकेनोन्नतिमायाति स्तोकेनायात्यधोगतिं अहो सुसदृशी चेष्टा तुलायष्टे: खलस्य च [161] The weighing balance and the lowly both act in the same manner. Just a little makes them go up, just a little makes them go down. Next day Gorambha went to the palace as usual. When he was sweeping the floor near the king’s cot, he saw the king half asleep and said loudly-“Aha! This king is a fool. He eats the cucumber when he passes feces in the toilet.” The king was shocked by his words and questioned him-“Hey Hey Gorambha! What non-sense are you blabbering? Because you have been working here for a long time, I will leave you unharmed. Have you seen me anytime doing such a thing?” Gorambha said-“Lord! As I had spent the night in gambling, I suddenly fell asleep for a few seconds. I do not know what I said when I was asleep. So please forgive whatever I said in my sleep.” Hearing this, the king started thinking-“I have not eaten cucumbers while passing feces even in other births. Just like this idiot has uttered such nonsensical words about me today, he must have blabbered some nonsense about Dantila too. I have not done justice to that poor man by ignoring him. Such a noble man would have never misbehaved with the queen. Because of his absence all the works connected to the palace and the city remain unfinished.” Analyzing like this in his mind, he called for Dantila and gifted him his own garments and ornaments and appointed him again in the prime post. That is why I say- यो न पूज्यते गर्वाद् (He who disregards with arrogance). {SANJEEVAKA AND PINGALAKA BECOME FRIENDS} Sanjeevaka said-“O Good one! Let it be so. I will do as per your advice.” Damanaka took him to the king’s presence; and said- “Lord! I have brought that Sanjeevaka. Salutations to your highness!” Sanjeevaka also saluted him with respect and stood in front of him humbly. Pingalaka placed his right hand decorated by the sharp axes of nails on Sanjeevaka’s fat and elongated hump and said with respect-“Are you in good health? How is it that you have arrived at this deserted forest?” Sanjeevaka related to him his own life incidents where the merchant Vardhamaana had abandoned him on the road and what events followed that incident. Hearing this, Pingalaka affectionately said to him-“Friend! Do not fear. From now on you stay in this forest doing whatever you like, under the protection of our shoulder-cage. And again, be always in my proximity because this forest is full of wild animals and very dangerous. Even huge animals cannot live here; what to say of grass-eating animals?” Having said this, Pingalaka climbed down to the bank of the River Yamuna along with his retinue and drank water and went back to the forest. Later he deposited the responsibility of the kingdom in the hands of Karataka and Damanaka and spent his life in discussing all the wise sayings of the yore in the company of Sanjeevaka. Or, it is well-said- यदृच्छयाप्युपनतं सकृत्सज्जनसंगतं भवत्यजरमत्यन्तं नाभ्यासक्रममीक्षते [162] The friendship of the good people even if accidentally occurs once, becomes permanent and does not perish. It does nor require renewals again and again. {CONSEQUENCES OF THE FRIENDSHIP BETWEEN SPECIES WITH DIFFERENT HABITS} Sanjeevaka was learned in many sciences and was extremely wise. Within a few days he changed the foolish Pingalaka into a very intelligent person. Pingalaka left his forest culture (killing animals) and started cultivating civilized manners. What more, it became a daily routine for Pingalaka and Sanjeevaka to converse in private keeping all the other animals at a distance. Even Karataka and Damanaka never were allowed to participate in their conversations. Again, since the lion never attacked any animals for food, all the animals along with the two foxes went hungry and became ill and stayed at one place together. It is said- फलहीनं नृपं भृत्याः कुलीनमपि चोन्नतं संत्यज्यान्यत्र गच्छन्ति शुष्कवृक्षमिवाण्डजाः [163] Even if the king is of a good family and very great, if there are no fruits to be gained from him, the servants leave and go elsewhere seeking employment, like the birds leaving a dry, fruitless tree. And also- अपि संमानसंयुक्ताः कुलीना भक्तितत्पराः वृत्तिभङ्गान्महीपालम् त्यजन्त्येव हि सेवकाः [164] Even if well-respected, even if born of a good family, even if very much in devotion, the servants leave a king if there is no remuneration available from him. कालातिक्रमणं वृत्तेर्योन कुर्वीत भूपति: कदाचित्तं न मुञ्चन्ति भर्त्सिता अपि सेवका: [165] The servants never leave a king who pays timely salary even if rudely treated by him. {SELFISH NATURE OF THE WORLD} Not only are the servants like this. The entire population of the world only waits to eat the other using the tricks of conciliation (Saama) etc. Because – देशानामुपरि क्ष्माभृदातुराणां चिकित्सकाः वणिजो ग्राहकानां च मूर्खानामपि पण्डिताः [166] प्रमादिनां तथा चौरा भिक्षुका गृहमेधिनां गणिकाः कामिनां चैव सर्वलोकस्य शिल्पिनः [167] सामादिसज्जितैः पाशैःप्रतीक्ष्यन्ते दिवानिशं उपजीवन्ति शक्त्या हि जलजा जलजानिव [168] The kings for the countries; the doctors for the patients; the merchants for the customers; the intellectuals for fools; the thieves for the careless ones; the beggars for the charitable nature of the householders; harlots for the lustful men; the laborers for the entire world, wait day and night with their traps prepared with strategies like Saama (Conciliation) etc. spread out to catch them unaware. Thus all live by taking advantage of the other making use of their full talents like the aquatic beings surviving by eating the weaker ones. Or, it is well said- सर्पाणां खलानां च परद्रव्यापहारिणां अभिप्राया न सिद्ध्यन्ति तेनेदं वर्तते जगत् [169] Usually the wishes entertained by the snakes, cheats, and the thieves do not get fulfilled. That is why the world still moves on. अत्तुं वाञ्छन्ति शांभवो गणपतेराखु क्षुदार्थः फणी तं च क्रौन्चरिपो: शिखी गिरिसुतासिम्होsपि नागाशनं इत्थं यत्र परिग्रहस्य घटना शंभोरापि स्याद्गृहे तत्रान्यस्य कथं न भाविजगतो यस्मात्स्वरूपं हि तत् [170] The hungry snake hanging on the neck of Shiva wants to swallow the rat of Ganesha; the peacock belonging to Kumaara wants to attack that snake; that peacock which swallows the snake is desired by the lion of Girijaa. When such a grabbing game is going on even in the house of Shiva, how can it be otherwise elsewhere? The created world is modeled in the same way. {DAMANAKA AND KARATAKA ARE WORRIED} Then, Karataka and Damanaka, hungry and thirsty and at present out of favor of the king, discussed with each other their plight. Damanaka said-“Brother Karataka! We have lost our importance. This Pingalaka is enamored by the talks of Sanjeevaka and does not do any of his duties properly. All the servants have left. What is to be done?” Karataka said-“Even if the Master does not heed to your words, he should be advised so that he corrects his faults. It is said- शृण्वन्नपि बोद्धव्यो मन्त्रिभिः पृथिवीपतिः यथा स्वदोषनाशाय विदुरेणांबिकासुतः [171] Even if the king shows disinterest, the ministers should keep advising him to keep clear their own infamy like Dhrtaraashtra, son of Ambika was advised by Vidura. And also- मदोन्मत्तस्य भूपस्य कुञ्जरस्य च गच्छत: उन्मार्गं वाच्यतां यान्ति महामात्रा: समीपगा: [172] If the ‘musth’ elephant or the arrogant king acts mad, only those who are their controllers (elephant-keeper/ministers) will get blamed. Because, when you brought this grass-eating animal to our Master, you crushed the burning embers with your hand.” Damanaka said-“True! It is entirely my fault, not the Master’s. It is said- जम्बुको हुडुयुद्देन वयं चाषाढभूतिना दूतिका तन्तुवायेन त्रयो दोषाः स्वयंकृताः [173] The difficulties encountered by the fox which went in between the fighting rams and we by Aashaadabhooti, and the messenger girl by the weaver, are all self-made. Karataka said-“How is that?” Damanaka said- [4] दूतीजंबुकाषाढभूतिकथा {THE STORY OF THE MESSENGER-GIRL/FOX/AASHAADABHOOTI} “There was a monastery in some deserted place. A recluse named Devasharma lived there. Many good people had given him expensive clothes as they passed that way. He sold them all and soon collected a heap of money. Now he started distrusting everyone. Day and night he kept that money tied to the end of the lower garment; he never left it unguarded even for a moment. Or, it is well said- अर्थानामर्जने दु:खमर्जितानांच रक्षणे आये दु:खम् व्यये दु:खम्धिगर्था: कष्टसंश्रया: [174] Earning wealth is painful; protecting the earned wealth is painful; gaining wealth is painful; spending wealth is painful; wealth is indeed a storehouse of pain. Once a thief and a cheat named Aashaadabhooti observed the money tied to his lower garment and started thinking of ways to steal that money; he thought- “This monastery is built with thick walls; so it cannot be broken into. I cannot enter through the roof or the door. So I will get him to trust me with my ability to talk and will become his disciple. If I become trustworthy, then the money will be someday mine. It is said- निस्पृहो नाधिकारी स्यान्नाकामी मण्डनप्रियः नाविदग्धः प्रियं ब्रूयात् स्फुटवक्ता न वञ्चकः [175] A man without desires cannot work as an official. A man without lust will not like to dress attractively. A man who is not learned will not talk pleasantly. A man who talks clearly cannot be a cheat.” Having thought like this, he approached Devasharma; loudly chanted ‘OM NAMAH SHIVAAYA’; saluted him; and pretending to be very humble said-“O Great Lord! This world has no essence. The youth flows away like the mountain river. The life is like a straw caught in fire. The enjoyments are as ephemeral as the autumn clouds. The relationship with the friends, sons, servants and others is equal to a dream. I have understood this all perfectly. So what should I do to cross over this worldly existence?” Hearing this, Devasharma spoke with compassion-“Child! You are indeed fortunate that in such a young age you have attained dispassion. It is said- पूर्वे वयसि यः शान्त: स शान्त इति मे मतिः धातुषु क्षीयमाणेषु शमः कस्य न जायते [176] He who is peaceful in the mind in his youth is truly a peaceful person, I believe. When all the strength is gone (in old age) who does not get a peaceful disposition! आदौ चित्ते तत: काये सतां संपद्यते जरा असतां तु पुनः काये नैव चित्ते कदाचन [177] For the good ones, the mind first becomes old and then the body. For the wicked the body alone gets old, never the mind. You are asking about the means to cross over the worldly existence. Then listen- शूद्रो वा यदि वाsन्योsपि चाण्डालोsपि जटाधरः दीक्षितः शिवमन्त्रेण सभस्माङ्गः शिवो भवेत् [178] Even if born in a low caste or any other, or even if one is a Chaandaala, if he wears matted locks and is initiated by a Guru into the sacred chant of Shiva, he will indeed become a Shiva covered by ashes. षडक्षरेण मन्त्रेण पुष्पमेकमपि स्वयं लिङ्गस्य मूर्ध्नि यो दद्यान्न स भूयोsभिजायते [179] He who places a single flower on top of the Linga by his own hands, accompanied by the six-lettered chant of Shiva, will never get born again. Hearing these words, Aashaadabhooti held his feet tightly and said-“Lord then grace me with initiation (DEEKSHAA).” Devasharma said-“Child! I will indeed bless you with my grace. But you should not enter the center of the monastery at night; because the recluses are supposed to avoid company, myself and you both. It is said- दुर्मन्त्रान्नृपतिर्विनश्यति यति: संगात् सुतो लालनात् विप्रोsनध्ययनात्कुलं कुतनयाच्छीलं खलोपासनात् मैत्री चाप्रणयात् संमृद्धिरनयात् स्नेहा: प्रवासाश्रयात् स्त्री गर्वादनवेक्षणादपिकृषिस्त्यागात् प्रमादाद्धनं [180] By bad counseling the king perishes; the ascetic by company; the son by pampering; a Brahmin by not studying; family by bad progeny; character by bad company; friendship by lack of affection; prosperity by improper behavior; love by travelling away; woman by arrogance and not kept under supervision; agriculture by not bothering; wealth by mistake. Therefore after accepting the Vow of asceticism, you should sleep in the cottage made of grass outside the monastery.” Aashaadabhooti said-“Lord! Whatever the Lord commands is my blessing. That alone will help in the other world.” After arranging for his bed outside, Devasharma gave him the initiation and accepted him as a disciple through ceremonial rituals. Aashaadabhooti also pleased his Guru by serving him in various ways like pressing the feet, hands etc. Even then the recluse did not leave the money tied at the end of his garment anywhere. As time went by, Aashaadabhooti thought-‘Aha! This fellow does not trust me whatever I do. Shall I kill him at day time with a weapon, or poison him, or strangle his neck brutally?’ As he was thinking like this, some son of a disciple of Devasharma from some village arrived there to invite him and said-“Lord! Please bless us by your presence on the occasion of the wearing of the sacred thread.” Hearing this, Devasharma started towards the village accompanied by Aashaadabhooti. As they were travelling they came across a river. Devasharma saw the river; removed the money from the garment-end and hid it in a patched pouch; took bath; performed the worship of his deity; and then told Aashaadabhooti-“O Aashaadabhooti! I will have to clear my bowels urgently. This cloth pouch contains Shiva’s statuette .You please take care of it till I come”; and went to attend to his toilet. Aashaadabhooti waited till he was out of sight; grabbed the pouch and ran away. Devasharma meanwhile feeling pleased about his disciple’s good character and trustworthiness went and sat somewhere in some bushes to clear his bowels. Then he saw a fight between two rams with golden hair. The two rams backed out from each other for some distance and suddenly rushed towards each other dashing their foreheads together bleeding a lot. There entered a fox named Jambuka smelling the blood. Greedy for the taste of the blood, he entered the center of the field and started licking the blood. Devasharma thought within himself-‘Aha! This fox is stupid. If it gets caught between the two rams as they rush towards each other it is going to get crushed to death; that is what I think.’ Within seconds the fox was caught between the fighting rams as it was licking the blood and instantly was crushed to death. Devasharma finished his toilet and slowly walked back worrying about the stupidity of the fox. He did not see his disciple anywhere. He cleaned himself quickly and searched for his pouch. The money inside was missing. “Ha-Ha! I have been robbed!” crying loudly like this he fainted on the ground. Immediately he got up and started screaming-“Hey Aashaadabhooti! Where have you gone after cheating me? Answer me!” after lamenting like this for long he slowly walked following the foot prints of Aashaadabhooti. He at last reached a village in the evening. Some weaver there started towards the city close by along with his wife to drink some liquor. Devasharma looked at him and said-“O good man! We are your guests who have reached here at the evening time. We do not know any one here. So please attend to the required needs of the guest. It is said- संप्राप्तो योsतिथि: सायं सूर्योढो गृहमेधिनां पूजया तस्य देवत्वं प्रयान्ति गृहमेधिन: [181] The householders who worship the guest who arrives at the door of the householder in the evening when the sun sets attain the divine status. And also- तृणानि भूमिरुदकं वाक्चतुर्थी च सूनृता सतामेतानि हर्म्येषु नोच्छिद्यन्ते कदाचन [182] Grass to be used as mats; ground to rest upon; water to quench the thirst; pleasant words to hear; the houses of good men do not lack these four objects ever. स्वागतेनाग्नयस्तृप्ताः आसनेन शतक्रतुः पादशौचेन पितरः अर्घाच्छम्भुस्तथातिथेः [183] By welcoming the guest fires are satisfied; by offering the seat Indra is satisfied; by washing the feet ancestors get satisfied; by offering Arghya Shiva gets satisfied.” The weaver heard this and said to his wife-“Dearest! You take the guest and go home. Wash his feet; offer him food and bed and wait there. I will bring you lots of liquor.” Saying so, he left. That wife who was of unchaste character guided Devasharma towards her house. Her face had bloomed with a slight smile as she thought about her lover Devadatta as she walked towards her house. Or it is rightly said- दुर्दिवसे घनतिमिरे दुःसन्चारासु नगरवीथीसु पत्युर्विदेशगमने परमसुखं जघनचपलायाः [184] If the husband is out of the city on a dark rainy day a and the roads are deserted, the lustful woman feels extremely happy. (because she can meet her lover) And also- पर्यङ्कं स्वास्तरणं पतिमनुकुलं मनोहरं शयनं तृणमिव लघु मन्यन्ते कामिन्यश्चौर्यरतालुब्धा: [185] A very fine soft mattress, an understanding husband, a very pleasant bed are looked upon with disdain equal to a straw by the women who have illicit affairs. And also- केलिः प्रदहति मज्जां शृङ्गारोsस्थीनिचाटव: कटव: बन्धक्या: परितोषो न किन्चिदिष्टे भवेत्पत्यौ [186] Amorous sports burn their bone marrow; romance their bones; love-filled talks sound bitter. Whatever the husband does to please the unchaste lady, nothing brings them pleasure. कुलपतनं जनगर्हा बन्धनमपि जीवितव्यसन्देहं अङ्गीकरोति कुलटा सततं परपुरुषसंसक्ता [187] Bad name for the family; ridicule from people; prison sentence; life in danger; all these, the ‘harlot after another man’ accepts without hesitation. The weaver’s wife went home and offered a broken cot without a mattress to Devasharma and said-“Lord! I will quickly meet my friend who has come from the village and be back soon. You rest till then and take care.” Saying so, she dressed herself with extra care and started to leave in order to meet her lover Devadatta. At the same time her husband came there in front of her. He was shaking all over by the effect of the liquor; his hair was disheveled; he was stumbling at every step; his hand held a pot of liquor. His wife saw him coming; she quickly ran inside her house with apprehension; removed all her extra ornaments; and remained as if she was waiting only for her husband. The weaver already had heard rumors about his wife’s unchaste behavior and was in a distressed state but never had let her know of his suspicion. He saw her now dressed like a vamp and running back to the house. Now he had the proof of her unchaste character by her actions; with anger burning his whole self he entered the house and shouted- “Hey you sinner! You harlot! Where were you going to?” She said-“After coming back home leaving you at the liquor house, I have not gone anywhere. You are drunk and blabbering nonsense. Or it is rightly said- वैकल्यं धरणीपातमयथोचितजल्पनं संनिपातस्य चिह्नानि मद्यं सर्वाणि दर्शयेत् [188] Imperfect stance; falling on the ground; blabbering improper things; the liquor produces all these symptoms which occur usually at death. करस्पन्दोंबरत्यागस्तेजोहानिः सरागता वारुणीसङ्गजावस्था भानुनाप्यनुभूयते [189] Hazy rays (trembling of hand), leaving the sky (falling of the garment), decrease in heat (lack of facial luster); reddish hue (flushed face); even the sun gets all these symptoms by the contact of the western direction (liquor). He heard her answering back like this and saw proofs of her quick dress-change and said-“You harlot! I already have heard of your misadventures. Now I have seen it with my own eyes. I know how to punish you.” He took a rod in his hand and thrashed her well; he tied her to a post and fell unconscious by the effect of the liquor. Meanwhile her friend, the wife of the barber came there. She saw the unconscious weaver and said to the weaver’s wife-“Friend! Devadatta is waiting at the appointed place for you. Quickly go there.” The weaver’s wife said-“Look at my condition. How can I go? Go and tell that lustful man-‘Tonight I will not meet him’.” The barber’s wife said- “Friend, do not talk like that. This is not the way an unchaste woman should behave. It is said- विषमस्थस्वादुफलग्रहणव्यवसायनिश्चयो येषां उष्ट्रानामिव तेषां मन्येsहम् शंसितं जन्म [190] Their birth is praiseworthy who have decided to somehow pluck the tasty fruit in a thorny plant like the camels; so I believe. And also- संधिग्धे परलोके जनापवादे च जगति बहुचित्रे स्वाधीने पररमणे धन्यास्तारुण्यफलभाजः [191] The other world after death is a matter of doubt. The ridicule of the world is various and common. If another man is under your control, that indeed is the worthy fruit of the youth. And also- यदि भवति दैवयोगात् पुमान् विरूपोsपि बन्धकी रहसि न तु कृच्छादपि भद्रं निजकान्तं सा भजत्येव [192] The unchaste woman enjoys the company of even an ugly man met by chance. She does not like the company of the husband who has been attained with much difficulty.” The weaver’s wife questioned-“If that is so, then tell me how I can go there being tied up like this? This wicked husband of mine is here only.” The barber’s wife said-“Friend! This idiot is drunk. He will wa…


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